headerpos: 9513
 
 
  Oil Shale

ISSN 1736-7492 (electronic)  ISSN 0208-189X (print)
Published since 1984

Oil Shale

ISSN 1736-7492 (electronic)  ISSN 0208-189X (print)
Published since 1984

Publisher
Journal Information
» Editorial Policy
» Editorial Board
Extra
Guidelines for Authors
» For Authors
» Instructions to Authors
» Copyright Transfer Form
Guidelines for Reviewers
» For Reviewers
» Review Form
Subscription Information
Support & Contact
List of Issues
» 2019
» 2018
» 2017
» 2016
» 2015
» 2014
» 2013
Vol. 30, Issue 4
Vol. 30, Issue 3
Vol. 30, Issue 2S
Vol. 30, Issue 2
Vol. 30, Issue 1
» 2012
» 2011
» 2010
» 2009
» 2008
» Back Issues
» Back issues (full texts)
  in Google
Publisher
» Other journals
» Staff

THERMAL AND MINERALOGICAL STUDIES OF MOROCCAN RIF BITUMINOUS ROCKS; pp. 536–549

(Full article in PDF format) doi: 10.3176/oil.2013.4.06


Authors

KHALIHENA GROUNE, MOHAMMED HALIM, SAÏD ARSALANE

Abstract

A study was conducted on four bituminous rock samples from Tangier, Tetouan, Bab Taza and Arba Ayach deposits (samples TA, TE, BT, AA, respectively) in the Rif region of northern Morocco. The study was carried out using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XFR), inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrum analysis (SEM-EDX).
   The results obtained by these methods showed that the organic part of TA, TE, BT and AA samples was 5.59 wt%, 6.73 wt%, 4.77 wt% and 7.53 wt%, respectively. Therefore these bituminous rocks can be considered a perspective energy resource. The dominant mineral phase in all samples is quartz (70.04–84.46 wt%). Clay minerals (illite, chlorite) and other mineral components are present in different low-weight proportions.

Keywords

mineralogy, bituminous rocks, thermogravimetry, X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, Moroccan Rif.

References

  1.  Bouchta , R. , Zemmouri , O. Geological Study and reserves of oil shale deposit of Timahdit , Ministry of Energy and Mines. Mines Review , Geology and Energy , Rabat , 1981 (in French).

  2. Tissot , B. P. , Welte , D. H. Petroleum Formation and Occurrence. Springer , Berlin , 1984.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-87813-8

  3. Hutton , A. C. Petrographic classification of oil shales. Int. J. Coal Geol. , 1987 , 8(3) , 203–231.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0166-5162(87)90032-2

  4. Burger , J. The exploitation of oil shale; general information and future prospective. Rev. IFP , 1973 , 28 , 315 (in French).

  5. Peters , K. E. , Cassa , M. R. Applied source rock geochemistry. In: The Petroleum System: From Source to Trap (Magoon , L. B. , Dow , W. G. , eds.) , AAPG , 1994 , 60 , 93–120.

  6. Brendow , K. Global oil shale issues and perspectives. Synthesis of the Symposium on Oil Shale held in Tallinn (Estonia) on 18 and 19 November 2002. Oil Shale , 2003 , 20(1) , 81–92.

  7. Sööt , P. M. , Voll , H. , Kõiv , T.-A. Utilization of oil shale retort gas. Oil Shale , 2012 , 29(3) , 248–267.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3176/oil.2012.3.05

  8. Altun , N. E. , Hiçyilmaz , C. , Hwang , J.-Y. , Suat Bağci , A. , Kök , M. V. Oil shales in the world and Turkey; reserves , current situation and future prospects: a review. Oil Shale , 2006 , 23(3) , 211–227.

  9. Berthelot , Ch. Carbonization of oil shales in France. Factory St. Hilaire (Allier) , October , 1938 (in French).

10. Berthelot , Ch. The deposits of oil shales and limestones of Tangier and Mogador , December , 1938 (in French).

11. Nejma , M. Contribution in the development from rock to kerogen of Timahdit. PhD thesis Es-Sciences , Mohammed V University , Rabat , 1989 (in French).

12. Durand-Delga , M. , Olivier , P. Geological map of Melloussa Rif 1/50.000. Notes and Mem. Geol. serv. Morocco , 1988 , N°296 (in French).

13. Saadi , M. , Bouhaouli , A. , Hilali , E. A. , Ider , E. H. , Ralhali , T. Moroccan bituminous rocks. Specially Devoted to oil shale in Morocco. Geology and Energy , Ministry of Energy and Mines N°50 , 1981 (in French).

14. Clarion , D. L. Notes on Western Atlas oil shale. Report. S. C. P. / Mid / N°131 , May , 1934 (in French).

15. Durand-Delga , M. , Kornprost , J. Geological map of Tetouan–Ras Mazari Rif 1/50.000. Notes and Mem. Geol. serv. Morocco , 1985 , N°292 (in French).

16. Kornprost , J. , Wildi , W. , Nold , M. , Gutnie , M. , Lespinasse , P. Geological map of Bab Taza Rif 1/50.000. Notes and Mem. Geol. serv. Morocco , 1980 , N°288 (in French).

17. Belkbir , L. , Barkia , H. , Gérard , N. Investigation of diffusional phenomenon in the oil shale of Timahdit (Morocco) , Role of sedimented plans. Thermochim. Acta , 1986 , 103(1) , 147–150.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0040-6031(86)80024-7

18. Gibbs , R. J. Preparation of X-ray diffraction mounts. In: Procedures in Sedimentary Petrology (Carver , R. E. , ed.). John Wiley and Sons Inc. , New York , 1971 , 531–540.

19. Griffin , G. M. Interpretation of X-ray diffraction data. In: Procedures in Sedimentary Petrology (Carver , R. E. , ed.). John Wiley and Sons Inc. , New York , 1971 , 541–569.

20. Hardy , R. G. , Tucker , M. E. X-ray powder diffraction of sediments. In: Techniques in Sedimentology (Tucker , M. E. , ed.). Blackwell , Oxford , UK , 1988 , 191–228.

21. Moore , D. M. , Reynolds , Jr. , R. C. X-Ray Diffraction and the Identification and Analysis of Clay Minerals , 2nd ed. Oxford University Press , Oxford , 1997.

22. Wilkerson , C. L. Trace metal composition of Green River retorted shale oil. Fuel , 1982 , 61(1) , 63–70.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0016-2361(82)90294-0

23. Orupõld , K. , Habicht , J. , Tenno , T. Leaching behaviour of oil shale semicoke: compliance with the waste acceptance criteria for landfills. Oil Shale , 2008 , 25(2) , 267–275.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3176/oil.2008.2.08

24. Jaber , J. O. , Probert , S. D. Pyrolysis and gasification kinetics of Jordanian oil shales. Appl. Energ. , 1999 , 63(4) , 269–286.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0306-2619(99)00033-1

25. Han , X. X. , Jiang , X. M. , Cui , Z. G. Studies of the effect of retorting factors on the yield of shale oil for a new comprehensive utilization technology of oil shale. Appl. Energ. , 2009 , 86(11) , 2381–2385.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2009.03.014

26. Groune , K. , Halim , M. , Benmakhlouf , M. , Arsalane , S. , Lemee , L. , Ambles , A. Organic geochemical and mineralogical characterization of the Moroccan Rif bituminous rocks. J. Mater. Environ. Sci. , 2013 , 4(4) , 472–481.

27. Amblès , A. , Halim , M. , Jacquesy , J.-C. , Vitorovic , D. , Ziyad , M. Characteriza­tion of kerogen from Timahdit shale (Y-layer) based on multistage alkaline permanganate degradation. Fuel , 1994 , 73(1) , 17–24.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0016-2361(94)90183-X

28. Halim , M. Study of sedimentary organic matter , Timahdit and Tarfaya deposits. PhD thesis Es-Sciences , Mohammed V University , Rabat , 1993 (in French).

29. Saoiabi , A. , Doukkali , A. , Hamad , M. , Zrineh , A. , Ferhat , M. , Debyser , Y. Thermal behavior of Timahdit oil shale (Morocco). C. R. Acad. Sci. , Paris , Chimie/Chemistry , 2001 , 4 , 361–366 (in French).

30. Aboulkas , A. , El Harfi , K. Study of the kinetics and mechanisms of thermal decomposition of Moroccan Tarfaya oil shale and its kerogen. Oil Shale , 2008 , 25(4) , 426-443.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3176/oil.2008.4.04

 
Back

Current Issue: Vol. 36, Issue 3, 2019




Publishing schedule:
No. 1: 20 March
No. 2: 20 June
No. 3: 20 September
No. 4: 20 December